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Nonpoint pollutants are dumped into lakes, rivers, and streams that may be far away from any ocean. However, these pollutants flow, eventually, into the oceans. They can come from a variety of sources, from road salt to agricultural pesticides. One source of nonpoint pollution is runoff from farming, including fertilizers, manure, and pesticides.

Another source is industrial runoff, including heavy metals, phosphorous, and many other chemicals. Urban runoff oils, salts, various chemicals and atmospheric fallout of airborne pollution are other sources of nonpoint pollutants that reach the oceans. This includes water and waste from sinks, toilets, washing machines, and bathtubs. The problem with this type of waste is that it provides massive amounts of nutrients for water plants, such as algae, so that they grow rapidly.

This sudden growth causes concentrations or algae blooms, which use up the oxygen in the water. As the oxygen levels of the water decline, many organisms suffer and die, and the ocean ecosystem is radically altered. This can be prevented by the installation of waste treatment plants that prevent waste from entering the sea, but such facilities do not exist in many poorer countries. Although the hydrological cycle produces clean water in the form of rain, it does not remove the pollutants that steadily build up in the oceans.

New laws and regulations make it difficult for people to dump their trash into the oceans. The oceans have long served as a vast dumping ground for all kinds of waste. These are just a few of the problems caused by using the oceans as dumping grounds. Wastewater dumping is yet another major form of ocean pollution. Some pollutants in the ocean are not dumped there directly.

Compare your answers with those of another pair of students. Main Ideas of Paragraphs Topic sentences and main ideas In addition to stating the topic, most topic sentences also tell the writer's main idea, or in other words, the idea that the writer wants to express about the topic. To explain the idea, the writer includes several supporting details in the paragraph and these details are more specific than the main idea.

Example Working with another student, read the paragraph and underline the topic sentence. Choose the best main idea statement below. The global demand for water estimated at about 5 billion cubic feet per year has tripled since One reason for the increased demand for water is the rapid growth in population.

Each person on earth consumes, on average, 10 million gallons of water in a lifetime! More people means a need for more water for agricultural and household use. A second reason for the increased consumption of water is the rapid development of complex technology. Factories and food production facilities cannot function without water. Power-generating facilities also use vast amounts of water to make the steam that is needed to run the turbines and cool the system.

Main idea: a. The global demand for water has tripled since The main idea is choice c. It states the topic and the general idea that the writer explains about the topic. Choices a and b are details about the topic. Understanding Paragraphs Inferring the Main Idea In some paragraphs, the topic sentence may not state the complete main idea.

The topic may be stated in one sentence, and the writer's idea about the topic may be expressed in another sentence or in several sentences in the paragraph. In this case, the reader must combine ideas from several sentences to infer the complete main idea. Note: To make sure that it is really expressing a complete idea, the main idea statement should always be stated in a complete sentence with a subject and verb.

Working with another student, read the paragraph, write the topic, and underline the supporting facts and ideas. Then choose the best main idea statement. Floodplains are the flat land near a river that is covered with water when the river rises following a storm.

They provide several benefits. They can control flooding when the waters of a narrow river rise rapidly. As soon as the river's water has exceeded its banks and enters a floodplain, the water spreads out over a wide area and slows down.

There, the floodplain holds the water, allowing it to be slowly released into the river system and into underground bodies of water. Floodplains also help clean rivers and streams. They keep the water long enough for sediment small particles of dust, rock, and organic matter to settle into the earth under the floodplain. This keeps the sediment out of the river or stream. Topic: Main idea: a.

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Floodplains can control flooding when the waters of a narrow river rise rapidly. Floodplains near a river provide several benefits. If you disagree, explain your answers. Discuss the other main idea choices and explain why they were too general or too specific. Working with another student, read each paragraph, write the topic, and underline the supporting facts and ideas. Controlling Water in the Netherlands 1. The Netherlands, in Europe, is more than 60 percent near or below sea level.

Flooding has always been a major worry because its major cities, factories, and greenhouse farms are built on floodplains. The greatest risk of flooding comes from the North Sea itself with its severe winter storms and massive tides. However, flooding can also occur along the Rhine, Maas, and Scheldt Rivers, which are swollen every spring with snowmelt from the Alps. And when these major rivers meet the North Sea, they form a delta region that consists of additional floodplains.

Floods in the Netherlands are caused by severe winter storms. The Netherlands is at a high risk of flooding because much of it is on floodplains. As the Dutch built their cities, farms, and factories on the floodplains, they also built a system of barriers' to keep the floodwaters back.

The Dutch barriers are the strongest in the world, designed to protect the country from the usual high tides and heavy rainfall, as well as possible "monster" storms that occur only rarely.

The first line of defense is the dikes, dams,' and storm barriers, which over 2 the centuries have become ever longer and higher. Today they stretch for about 2, miles 3, km along the sea and the major rivers. They are aided by secondary defenses, such as canal dikes and holding ponds, as well as by thousands of water pumps and pumping stations.

The Dutch built cities, farms, and factories on the floodplains. The Dutch built a system of barriers to keep water out of the floodplains.


The Dutch system of barriers is the strongest in the world. Understanding Paragraphs 3. A recent government study on the effects of climate change has led the Dutch government to change its traditional water protection strategies.

The study concluded that the combination of higher rainfall in Northern Europe and rising sea levels would lead to an increased risk of flooding. At the same time, hotter summers could lead to cracking and weakening in the traditional earthen dikes. Thus, in the future, it might no longer be possible to hold back the water.

Though it will continue to maintain the barriers, the government is shifting to a "softer," more environmentally friendly approach. The aim is to rely more on the natural protection of flood plains, sand dunes, salt marshes, and mud flats. The government has begun downloading land along major waterways, where water could be directed when floods threaten.

Source: Adapted from "Netherlands relinquishes some of itself to the waters. The Dutch government has been studying the effects of climate change. As a result of climate change, the Dutch will change their water protection strategies. More rainfall in Northern Europe and rising sea levels may increase the risk of flooding.

Discuss the other main idea choices for each paragraph and explain why they were too general or too specific. Working with another student, read each paragraph and write the topic. Then choose the best main idea statement below and underline the supporting facts and ideas. Lake Baikal 1. Lake Baikal, the world's largest lake, is located in southern Siberia, in Russia.

It measures miles km long by 50 miles 80 km wide and it has 1, miles 2, km of coastline. The lake's rocky basin consists of three depressions, which hold a total volume of 14, cubic miles 23, cubic km of water, 20 percent of the freshwater in the world.

The lake is also very deep, with its deepest point at over 1 mile 1, meters and an average depth of 2, feet meters. Furthermore, scientists have determined that Lake Baikal is the oldest lake in the world.

From sediment obtained by drilling deep down below the lake, researchers estimate it to be at least 25 million years old. Lake Baikal is the world's largest and oldest lake. Lake Baikal is over 1 mile deep at its deepest point. Lake Baikal is located in southern Siberia, in Russia. Supporting facts and ideas: 2.

To scientists, Lake Baikal is of particular interest because of its unique and isolated ecosystem. More than 1, species of plants and animals found at Lake Baikal exist nowhere else on earth and some can be dated to prehistoric times. Among its unique fauna is the Baikal freshwater seal. This creature, which local people call nerpa, is the only mammal which inhabits the lake. Researchers speculate that these seals, which have been breeding at Lake Baikal for 22 million years, are the descendents of ocean-dwelling seals which migrated inland in search of food, when the lake was still connected to the sea.

Scientists can study many unique species that exist only at Lake Baikal. The fauna at Lake Baikal includes a freshwater seal called nerpa and a fish called omul. Many unique species can be found in the isolated ecosystem of Lake Baikal.

Supporting facts and ideas: 3. For centuries, the water in Lake Baikal was so clear that it was possible to see down to depths of 40 to 60 feet. Several factors contributed to keeping the water crystal clear.

First, the lake contained certain small zooplankton and small crustaceans that consumed waterweeds, bacteria, and other material that would otherwise cloud the water. Furthermore, the water in the lake consisted of rainwater and melted snow that flowed down from a mountain range in about streams and through uninhabited forest. Finally, most of the watershed has a rocky surface, so the water flowing into the lake did not accumulate mud or organic matter and had little mineral or chemical content.

Understanding Paragraphs 1 13 Topic: Main idea: a. The water in Lake Baikal was very clean for several reasons. Lake Baikal's water is famous for being clean and pure.

Small crustaceans keep the waters of Lake Baikal clear.

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Supporting facts and ideas: B. If you disagree, explain your answers and look back at the paragraph to check your work. Then discuss the other main idea choices and explain why they are too general or too specific. Connecting Ideas in Paragraphs Understanding a paragraph—or a longer passage—often involves more than just identifying the topic and main idea. It is also necessary to understand the way writers in English guide the reader through the logic of their ideas or show the connections between ideas.

Pronouns as Connectors Pronouns often function as connecting words within a sentence or among different sentences. Pronouns are used to refer to a noun or noun phrase that has already been mentioned. A noun phrase is a group of words that functions as a noun in the sentence. This noun or noun phrase is called the referent. In order to understand what you read, you need to be able to identify the referent for each pronoun.

A good reader does this automatically. Working with another student, circle the pronouns, underline the referents, and draw an arrow from each pronoun to its referent. The first one is done for you. Working Women One of the most significant economic trends in the United States in the last half century has been the sharp increase in the number of women in paid employment. First, women are no longer bound to their traditional role of homemaker, thanks to smaller families and labor-saving household devices.

There has also been a strong demand for women in the job market, where the range of opportunities for them is continually expanding.

Furthermore, women are generally earning more than in the past, which means they can afford to pay for child care and help with household chores. Main idea: The number of women in paid employment has increased in the last half century. Working with another student, read the paragraph and write the main idea. Then circle the pronouns, underline the referents, and draw an arrow from each pronoun to its referent.

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Write the pronouns and referents below. The increase in paid employment for women may have contributed to various changes in social attitudes, but it has not completely changed the role of women in the home. Women who work outside the home still usually end up playing the leading role in managing the care of the house and family. Husbands may contribute by taking out the trash or mowing the lawn, but on average they spend a lot less time doing these and other household tasks than women do.

This is true even for women who are working full-time and for those who can afford to pay for help in the home. In fact, if a woman can afford to pay for help, she is usually the one who has to manage this help, hiring and overseeing the baby- sitters, cleaners, repairmen, and so on. She is also more likely to attend school meetings, make appointments with teachers, and in general, attend to the needs of the children. Main idea: Pronouns Referents B. If you disagree, look back at the paragraph to check your work.

These words help the reader to follow the logic of the writer's thinking. Some common transition words and phrases also especially in fact soon as a result finally in other words such as as well as first in particular that is at the same time for example instead then at this point for instance in the same way thus at times for this reason likewise whereas before long furthermore now but however similarly Example: A.

Then underline the transitions listed below. The Transnational Corporation The transnational corporation, or TNC, is not just a company that engages in business abroad. It is generally defined as a firm that has a direct investment in two or more countries. In other words, a TNC may have its headquarters in one country, its factories in another, and it may sell its products in yet another country.

For instance, Nike, makers of sportswear, is based in the United States, but most of its shoes and clothes are manufactured in Southeast Asia or South America. They are then shipped back to the United States to be sold, or to Europe, Japan, or other emerging markets such as India.

Thus, the TNC can potentially influence the economies of many different countries, especially the weaker economies of the developing world. Main idea: Transitions Pronouns and referents In other words It—the transnational corporation For instance its—the transnational corporation Thus it—the transnational corporation especially its—Nike, They—Nike shoes and clothes B.

Compare your work with that of another pair of students. Working with another student, read the paragraphs and underline the transitions. Circle the pronouns and draw an arrow from each pronoun to its referent.

Then write the main idea. Henry Ford and Fordlandia 1. In the s, the Ford Motor Company bought large quantities of rubber from Asian rubber growers for the tires of its Model A cars. However, the supply of rubber was not always reliable and at times, while waiting for shipments, the factory had to stop production. Henry Ford, who owned the company, could have ensured more reliable rubber supplies by making a long-term agreement with the rubber growers. In fact, carmakers often make such agreements now.

But Henry Ford had another idea. He decided that the best solution would be to own a rubber supply of his own. Thus, in , the company bought land in Brazil and started a rubber plantation. Main idea: 2. The new plantation, named Fordlandia, was situated in the jungle and covered about 3, square miles 5, square km. A vast area of tropical forest was cut down and replaced by rubber trees. Beside the plantation, a factory was built for processing the rubber, and a whole town was constructed for the workers, complete with schools, stores, churches, and even a golf course.

Once the trees were producing rubber and the factory was operating, Ford thought his rubber supply was guaranteed.

However, there were various factors in the situation that he had not taken into account. One was the suitability of the site jungle for rubber production. In fact, the rubber trees were soon attacked by disease. Another factor was the political climate in South America, which was not favorable for Comprehension Skills Americans.

Before long, there were problems with the local workers at the plantation and in the factory. Main idea: 3.

Fordlandia is now viewed as a historical lesson for companies about the mistake of trying to control all phases of production. In fact, the Ford Motor Company has the opposite problem today. Whereas Henry Ford was afraid of running short of supplies, contemporary carmakers and other companies are afraid of having too many supplies and parts on hand. For this reason, they download only what they need when they need it and try to have as little inventory as possible.

This so called "just on time" system works fine as long as the parts are available when needed. However, in recent years a number of carmakers, as well as computer and electronics companies, have been faced with shortages. For example, soon after the Apple Computer Company introduced its iPod music player, there was so much demand that Apple ran out of parts and it had to suspend production, losing sales as a result.

Main idea: B. If you disagree, look back at the paragraphs to check your work. Understanding Paragraphs Thinking in English In these exercises you will practice what you have learned so far about paragraphs.

The last sentence in each paragraph is incomplete. In order to choose the best completion, you need to understand the main idea and how all the ideas in the paragraph are connected. Example: Read the incomplete paragraph and write the main idea. Then decide which ending best fits the logic of the paragraph. The wine industry in the Burgundy region of France has proved to be an unexpected source of data about the history of climate change.

From the Middle Ages until the twentieth century, churches in Burgundy were central to social, cultural, and even economic activity.This can be prevented by the installation of waste treatment plants that prevent waste from entering the sea, but such facilities do not exist in many poorer countries.

As long as demand for gold remains steady, the price will hold steady; if demand is high, it will continue to increase in value. Have you ever thought about well-paid ob with high salary and excellent working conditions? Twenty-five years ago, they began piping in water from 80 miles km away.

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