“Case Study Of Bhakra Nangal Dam” Bachelor of Engineering (Sem-VII) ( Mechanical Engineering) By Jaywant Manurkar Vikram Dhanve Bhavesh Bhoir Suyog. These projects comprise Bhakra Dam on river Sutlej with Power Stations on left .. Bhakra Nangal Project: The Bhakra Dam was the first multi-purpose project of . Bhakra, the new temple of resurgent India, is the symbol of India's progress.” Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, during the dedication of the. Bhakra dam to the nation.
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Bhakra Reservoir is intended to develop power at the foot of the dam. Nangal Dam: The Nangal Dam, 8 miles downstream from the. Bhakra Dam site, which. Bhakra Dam is a concrete gravity dam on the Sutlej River in Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh in However, sometimes both the dams together are called Bhakra- Nangal Dam though they . "India: National Register of Large Dams " (PDF) . These projects comprise Bhakra Dam on river Sutlej with Power .. To regulate the supply of power from Bhakra Nangal and Beas projects to.
Bhakra Dam Term Paper
The various options were studied and following 2nd Dredger was procured and commissioned during recommendations were made: Apart from the measures listed above, it was also decided in the said meeting to undertake certain long term measures that were organization-wide and not limited to the BSL project. While the implementation of monitoring, mitigative and environmental enhancement projects helped BBMB in identification and resolution of specific environmental issues, adoption of an Environmental Management System EMS as per ISO standard on an organization-wide basis was considered as a useful and effective strategy.
Section 3. In the EMS approach the issues identified in Table 3. These aspects get analyzed in the context of legal requirements considering normal, ab-normal as well as emergency situations. A legal register provides a basis towards checking environmental compliance. Accordingly, the responsibilities are allocated across the organization, supported by required training to the concerned staff.
All procedures to be followed are documented with document upkeep guidelines. Accordingly, implementation plans are prepared and budgets are allocated for implementation. If there are any shortfalls or non-conformities then corrective actions are undertaken. A management review meeting is held to report the findings and take further directions.
The objectives and targets are revisited based on the performance, new issues if any and emergent organizational needs and aspirations.
The entire system of addressing and resolving environmental issues is thus systematic and not ad-hoc. The system is measurable and subject to internal and external audit process supported by institutional development training , documentation records and a Management Review. This form assures that environmental issues are identified and dealt with in a systematic manner on an organization wide basis.
Not many organizations have followed such a strategy. Following have been the benefits of the integrated approach. It may be observed that BBMB has gradually moved from Level I approach to Level III over a period of time moving towards a proactive, systemic, organization wide and business integrated environmental management system. In an effort to formalize its commitment to the environment and deliverance of quality to its customers, BBMB decided to opt for both systems of certification see Section 4.
The majority of the utilities were certified in Phase II. Chief System Operation Activities: Chief Engineer, Beas Transmission System: The major projects of BBMB are established in natural surroundings. BBMB is committed to preserve clean, green and serene environment of the projects and their surroundings.
Water conservation and rain water harvesting. The policy statement is thus proactive and guides preventive, mitigative as well as enhancement related measures in addressing the various environmental issues. BBMB will also continue to renovate, modernize and upgrade its generating units to optimally utilize the river waters and to improve reliability and efficiency.
The Environmental Management Programmes EMPs are formulated at relevant level for fulfilment of these objectives and progress monitored periodically. Listing of these goals is provided below. A strategy of setting goals for areas is important as area specific EMPs get evolved and budgeted for implementation. The team nominated by the Management Representative MR continues to report to him and seek his inputs throughout the exercise. The schema for attaching significance is comprehensive.
EMPs lay down time-bound activities with 9 Source: December, Progress is monitored periodically. BBMB periodically reviews and, where necessary, revises its emergency preparedness and response procedures, in particular, after the occurrence of accidents or emergency situations.
Mock drills are also conducted to test the efficacy of emergency procedures. A system exists for measurements of key characteristics of processes which can have significant environmental impact s. Regular monitoring is carried out to ensure degree of control for continued compliance to applicable standards and criteria in accordance with the following established procedures: There is a room to improve the environmental data management at BBMB.
The data is presently recorded on hard copies registers in various formats and practice of electronic storage for the purposes of analyses and reporting is not followed. Such a system if web based will allow BBMB to share the data with stakeholders on 24x7 basis. Importantly, this procedure is anticipatory and provides a mechanism for combined evaluation of compliance to applicable legal requirements and other environmental requirements.
This includes: The records of the results of evaluation and compliance with legal requirements and other applicable requirements are kept with nominated Nodal Environmental Officers at BBMB. Environmental monitoring data generated at the CDM project sites was reviewed.
The data showed conformity with the applicable standards. A cadre of permanent BBMB officials also exists. The policy decisions of the Board are dealt with by the Rules and Regulation Section. The induction of staff from the partner States i.
So far as the postings and transfers and other administrative decisions are concerned, the respective HODs exercise their power as per laid down statutes and procedures.
The regular holding of general meetings and correspondence etc. In this respect, a quarterly progress report indicating the position of pending grievances in respect of various administrations is compiled and sent to the Ministry of Power. Another important aspect of overall human resource planning is the maintenance of their competence levels.
Regular upgradation of knowledge and skills of the employees is ensured through trainings both in- house and through external agencies. It is planned that continued competence be ensured for the personnel performing quality related functions, based on appropriate education, training, skills and experience as per the HRD policy. A procedure for manpower training is documented. A Training Institute has been established at Nangal for providing training to in-house and external agencies on various specialized areas related to Power and Irrigation sectors.
This institute was visited during Environmental Audit. More information about environmental training modules conducted at BBMB is provided in section 4. Audits are carried out at planned intervals.
The interval period depends up on many factors such as significant environmental impacts, results of previous audit, impending visits of statutory authorities, changes affecting operations such as monsoon conditions etc. Audits are conducted with objective of: Frequency of audit shall at the minimum be quarterly at CE level and six monthly for audits organized at Head Office level.
However, this frequency can be modified depending upon factors such as: Auditors are selected from amongst a pool of trained internal auditors in such a manner so as to avoid any element of bias and ensure objectivity, impartiality of audit process. It provides for: Care is taken to ensure that action programme rectification, corrective, mitigative or preventive is commensurate with magnitude or scale of problem and its environmental impacts.
The Management Review is conducted at the top-most level for the entire EMS as well as the level of each MR for the area under their jurisdiction. The inputs to each Management Review meeting are to include the following: The outputs of each meeting are documented in the form of Minutes of the Meeting and are to include the following: Discussions were held with on-site Environmental Officers.
Documents and records relating to the EMS on-site were also reviewed for completeness and accuracy. Raw data on environmental monitoring was also reviewed to assess coverage in terms of parameters and compliance.
Training records were also seen to check extent of training imparted to the site staff on EMS and related environmental matters.
The documentation to this effect is clear and well organized in terms of common and specific procedures. These training programs are both conducted in house and externally through workshops, seminars and training by expert organizations. The EMS shows continual improvement in environmental performance.
For the purposes of training however, additional topics such as those listed in section 4. Ideally, such a person should serve as the MR. Records are kept in hard copy or entered in various formats without linkages. Such an EMIS will be useful to analyze the effectiveness of mitigation and enhancement measures, prepare reports and assess the level of compliance in a more systematic manner.
RS imageries in specific will allow change detection over a regional scale. These mechanisms may be used to channel concerns arising due to environmental issues. BBMB operates a website www. Environmental and social aspects are intimately linked and hence it becomes important to assess the social orientation of the organization in conducting Environmental Audit, especially in the case of multipurpose hydropower projects. BBMB is aware of the problems faced by the oustees of its projects who have shifted and re-settled in the adjoining villages.
Keeping the problems of these oustees in view, BBMB started some measures of its own for the welfare of the local people.
At the Bhakra- Nangal Project, these activities were started from the year In these camps, medicines are distributed free of cost to the patients. These camps have become very popular in the area and are highly beneficial to the aged people and the women, who are being checked medically at their door-step.
Medical Camps are organized in villages in which medicines and spectacles are distributed free of cost. BBMB is also running schools at project sites. These schools benefit the wards of the rural adjoining population also. Blood Donation Camps are organized at all project stations and at Chandigarh every year for the benefit of society at large.
Benches, fans, wall-charts, etc. Schools of HP Govt. Playgrounds and parks are prepared for the children at Schools and villages.
Water Resource Engineering-II
Books are donated to School Libraries to inculcate the habit of reading among school children. Ponds are desilted for rain water harvesting. After desiltation, these ponds are available to the villagers with increased storage capacity. Grading and improvement of village paths and roads is also done with BBMB machinery. Renovation of school buildings and other development works like improvement of Staircases at public places, construction of rain-shelters, etc are carried out as well.
Bhakra-Nangal Dam: History, features and facts about the second tallest dam in Asia
Documentation provided in this regard is complete and satisfactory. BBMB follows the stipulated guidelines for collection, collation and retention of data as per Government norms and the website is updated regularly on the information for public use. Environmental aspects b. Use FMEA format b. Use criteria for evaluation of environmental aspects c. Determine significance based on following: Technological improvements b. Monitoring of significant aspects c.
The Team shall submit the report to the concerned MR for his approval for further implementation 7 After implementation of the countermeasure it may -do- take up to 6 months depending on type of countermeasures , re-evaluate the aspect and re- calculate the RPN a. Follow environmental guidelines 8 Check whether there has been improvement such that -do- risk potential has decreased or not a. MR through Subsequently, continue to monitor its performance his concerned a.
Probability of Occurrence Score No.
Probability of Detection Score No. Severity Score No. If the answer to any of the following questions is affirmative, the aspect shall be considered significant and no scoring shall be necessary: Whether aspect in question relates to any environmental legislation?
Whether any external interested party is affected? Can this aspect result in an emergency? Inputs for Secretary, identification of training needs will be: BBMB a.
Training policy b. Annual performance appraisal c. List of faculty and their experience. Review shall cover: Adequacy of topics b. Extent of coverage c. Need for any eminent external faculty in the field. Secretary looking after HRD function. Nominated Officer a. Monthly report on progress of trainings to board office indicating training planned and conducted, facility, no. Attendance sheet Secretary, b.
Secretary looking after HRD function on its own may also process such training proposals.
Authority as per SOP a. Schedule of Power 15 After review, modifications if any shall be got Competent incorporated in proposal and approval shall be granted Authority by Competent Authority. Training programme shall be attended by nominated employee s as per schedule. After attending the training programme employee shall report on duty. Related Papers. The third power house is at Rupnagar. Two power houses have been constructed at Bhakra dam, one of which is on the left and the other is on the right bank of the river.
The installed capacity of these two power houses is MW and MW respectively. The main Bhakra Canal is km long. The length of the canal system and that of the distributaries is 1, km and 3, km respectively.
This canal system commands a gross area of about 27 lakh hectares and provides irrigation to about 15 lakh hectares. Of this Transmission Lines have been laid to carry hydroelectricity to the consuming centres. About 14 million cubic metres of concrete and other building materials have been used for the completion of this project.
This material is more than double the material used to build the grand pyramids of Egypt. The number of tiles used in the main Bhakra canal is so large that if they are arranged in a straight line, the length of the line so formed will be seven times the length of the equator. Seventy million man-days have been used to construct the canals of the Bhakra-Nangal project.
About This amount of soil is enough to construct a 6 metre wide road at 1 metre elevation from New Delhi to New York.
This project has helped in obtaining additional 1. No other river valley project in the world has so much potential as this project. However, Bhakra Nangal project like all other river valley projects, suffers from the problem of silting. Water coming from the higher reaches deposits its silt at the bed of the reservoir, thereby reducing its capacity to store water.Dams and reservoirs can be effectively used to control floods by regulating river water flows downstream the dam.
Water-skiing, sailing, kayaking and water scooter racing are popular water sports activities during this period. Bhakra dam was part of the larger multipurpose Bhakra Nangal Project whose aims were to prevent floods in the Satluj-Beas river valley, to provide irrigation to adjoining states and also to provide hydro-electricity.
In all, 58 holes were drilled in the course of preliminary explorations aggregating to an approximate length of 2, m.
Under the supervision of the American dam-builder, Harvey Slocum, work began in the year of and was completed in
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